Wilden/Bateson - Tacit/Explicit - Nonaka/Takeuchi

In this post, we were sketching out the implications of the interrelationship between abstract systems and concrete practices for art discourse. We're looking to extend this using some work from the field of organizational studies, specifically the work of Ikujiro Nonaka and Hirotaka Takeuchi. In their book, The Knowledge-Creating Company: How Japanese Companies Create the Dynamics of Innovation, they develop a four point model of organizational learning. To summarize:

1. Socialization - the transfer or sharing of tacit knowledge.
2. Externalization - tacit knowledge made explicit.
3. Combination - building concepts by sharing explicit knowledge.
4. Internalization - explicit knowledge made tacit.

Tacit knowledge is - situational, personal, knowing how. And explicit knowledge is abstract, theoretical, knowing that. Michael Polyani wrote extensively about tacit knowledge.

To add to the mix, we'd like to make another quick summary of Gregory Bateson's Logical Categories of Learning and Communication found in his book Steps to an Ecology of Mind (which we mentioned here):

Learning 0 - direct experience.
Learning I - making generalizations from experience.
Learning II - discrimination of contexts for generalizations.
Learning III - resolution of Level II paradoxes, radical shift in character/perspective concerning Level II insights.

Note that both of these models involve recursive feedback between levels. They are hirerarchical in terms of logical typing, but feedback is not limited in communicative direction.

In a later post we'll throw in a little Anthony Wilden and try to explicate how this connects with art practice, and ways of describing or theorizing it.